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When the uprising began on May 10, 1857, the British were taken by surprise and put on the defensive. However, the uprising was mainly confined to the north and did not extend to the whole country. Even most of the important native States remained loyal to the British and provided invaluable assistance. The British were thus able to counterattack about four months later, and by July 1858 the uprising had been suppressed. Atrocities were committed on both sides: the Indians massacred many captives, the British burned villages and killed the inhabitants indiscriminately. A month after the suppression of the uprising, Parliament passed the "India Act" which ended the rule of the East India Company and replaced it with the rule of a monarch. Since then, India has been ruled by a huge ruling group, whose base is in India and whose apex is the Minister of State of India in London. The Minister of State of India is a member of the Cabinet and is usually allowed a free hand by his colleagues. The most senior official in India is the Governor-General, who acts as the direct representative of the monarch and generally serves for a term of five years. The Governor was assisted by an Executive Council of five, none of whom were Indians before 1909. Beneath these top officials are the famous Indian civil servants who collect taxes, maintain law and order, and oversee the judicial system. Before 1919, the members of this small but noble group were almost all British graduates from Oxford and Cambridge. The Indian civil service runs a lower local administration staffed entirely by Indians. It is through these Indian officials in the lower echelons of the bureaucracy that the power of the government seeps into the masses. The efficiency of the British rule in India was reflected in the fact that in 1900 the British civil administration in India totalled 4,000, while the Indian civil administration numbered 500000. In 1910, the Indian Army consisted of 690 British and 1300 Indians. It should be noted that the British position in India was based not only on the army and bureaucracy,stesweet stevia, but also on the surviving Indian princes. Before the uprising, the English used to take over some duchies without compunction when the situation was right. But after the revolt, this policy was completely changed, so that India remained from that time like a bed of rags: made up of some 550 native States, intermingled with a number of British Indian provinces. Lord Canning, the first governor after the uprising, explained the reason for this change of policy in 1860: "If we can maintain many native States without political power and only as royal instruments,ghana seed extract, then we can survive in India as long as we maintain our maritime hegemony." Another governor, Lord Lytton, declared after the year ZO: "Henceforth we shall cause the English sovereign to support the hopes, aspirations, opinions, and interests of the powerful native nobility." Obviously, however sincere the British officials in India were, they had no direct contact with the views of the Indians. Most of them have tried in good faith to understand and correct the ills inherent in a huge, unrepresentative bureaucracy. But their preconceptions, which are of course British, prevent them from seeing the full implications and effects of their decisions. As Englishmen, for example, jujube seed powder ,lutein eye complex, they often see the adoption of English law as a great boon, when in fact it often acts as an agent of social division. We shall now examine the influence, deliberate or otherwise, of Great Britain on her Indian empire. IV. Influence of Britain Economic influence The British influence on India was first manifested in the economic field, and this was naturally the case from the time the British arrived in India in search of markets and commodities. Especially after the Americans became India's masters, they decisively, though often unwittingly, influenced India's economy. This was the case when Lord Cornwallis introduced a form of private property in land in the Lower Ganges area with his momentous Fixed Levy Act of 1793. In the past, tax collectors have been state officials responsible for collecting the state's share of the harvest from the many villages assigned to them.
At this time, however, some of the tax collectors were transformed into British landlords, that is, land tax collectors, while most of the villagers, who had formerly enjoyed the hereditary right to use the land, were now in the position of rent servants who could be refunded at any time by the landlord. It was estimated that the new landlords received a little over ?30 million a year in rent from the peasants, but they had to turn over ten of eleven of this to the British authorities, leaving one eleventh for themselves. The "permanence" of this arrangement is the requirement that the total amount of land rent handed over each year by the land collector shall remain the same at all times thereafter. This proved to be a windfall for the new landowners, who by the time of the Second World War were collecting between 12 million and 10 million pounds a year in rent, while still paying the original 3 million pounds to the state. The motive behind this strange contract was explained by the later Governor, Lord William Bentinck, as follows: If If security requires opposition to popular agitation or revolution, I should say that the fixed-dues law, though a failure in many other respects and in its most important essence, had at least one great advantage: it created a large number of wealthy landowners who were extremely concerned with the continuation of British rule and the complete control of the masses. The British did gain the loyalty of the land tax collectors, but they also caused a revolution in the village that they did not foresee at all. The old arrangement of the Commons now gave way to individual ownership, contract law, hypothecation, distress, and auction. In the past, the collection of land tax was quite flexible, while in this time, the tax amount was fixed, and the tax had to be paid on a set day, otherwise the private property had to be auctioned by the government to repay the tax arrears. In addition, these strange new laws are enforced by foreign officials who speak foreign languages and, as a rule, have little understanding of local issues and customs. In these cases, many Indian farmers have lost their land or are hopelessly in debt. Gradually but irresistibly,turmeric extract powder, the traditional, non-commercial, self-sufficient life of the Indian village came to an end. prius-biotech.com

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